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ICAO rules and each country's deviation from ICAO "base" rules

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ICAO rules and each country's deviation from ICAO "base" rules

Old 18th Sep 2022, 19:01
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ICAO rules and each country's deviation from ICAO "base" rules

All-
International flying rules.....what is the "base" source document and where do you find a country's individual rules?

I'm going to have a hard time formulating the question.....There appear to be international flying rules that everyone follows, then there are the rules that a particular country has that vary from the "base" rules that everyone follows. Where do you find the source documents for both?

For example, if I'm on a STAR as cleared, and a controller says, "descent to FLXXX," in one country that descent clearance deletes the altitude restrictions between my present position and the newly cleared altitude, while in another country I'd be required to continue with the descent restrictions along the STAR on the way down to the newly cleared altitude.

My airline provides me with some manuals that allow me to determine what I have to do to follow that clearance in the United States vs. India vs. the UK vs. China.. All four of these countries are following ICAO "base" rules (for lack of a better term) but might interpret that descent clearance differently.

So where do I find the ICAO "base" rules that everyone seems to follow, and then where do I find the document that say, India (or whatever country) follows which deviate from the ICAO "base" rules? Is there a centralized location, a "keyword search" I can do for each country on the Googles? Is there one document that has all the base rules in one place and each country's particular "deviation" from the base rules?

Thanks!
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Old 18th Sep 2022, 23:08
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ICAO issues SARPs (Standards and Recommended Practices).

It doesn't make rules because it has no more authority than its parent, the UN, to do so.
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Old 18th Sep 2022, 23:23
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Originally Posted by DaveReidUK View Post
ICAO issues SARPs (Standards and Recommended Practices).

It doesn't make rules because it has no more authority than its parent, the UN, to do so.
Are these ICAO SARPs the "base" that the countries all over the world base their own aviation rules on?
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Old 19th Sep 2022, 00:36
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Originally Posted by waterfalls123 View Post
All-
International flying rules.....what is the "base" source document and where do you find a country's individual rules?

I'm going to have a hard time formulating the question.....There appear to be international flying rules that everyone follows, then there are the rules that a particular country has that vary from the "base" rules that everyone follows. Where do you find the source documents for both?

For example, if I'm on a STAR as cleared, and a controller says, "descent to FLXXX," in one country that descent clearance deletes the altitude restrictions between my present position and the newly cleared altitude, while in another country I'd be required to continue with the descent restrictions along the STAR on the way down to the newly cleared altitude.

My airline provides me with some manuals that allow me to determine what I have to do to follow that clearance in the United States vs. India vs. the UK vs. China.. All four of these countries are following ICAO "base" rules (for lack of a better term) but might interpret that descent clearance differently.

So where do I find the ICAO "base" rules that everyone seems to follow, and then where do I find the document that say, India (or whatever country) follows which deviate from the ICAO "base" rules? Is there a centralized location, a "keyword search" I can do for each country on the Googles? Is there one document that has all the base rules in one place and each country's particular "deviation" from the base rules?

Thanks!
In my airline I find the differences in the Jepp Airway Manuals
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Old 19th Sep 2022, 04:05
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Originally Posted by hans brinker View Post
In my airline I find the differences in the Jepp Airway Manuals
Thanks. Yes, at mine too. I'm trying to figure out the source that Jepp, for example, uses to determine those differences between "standard" ICAO rules and each country's rules. And where are those "standard" rules that other countries differ from? If Jepp shows differences, my question is differences from what?
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Old 19th Sep 2022, 04:27
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Originally Posted by waterfalls123 View Post
Thanks. Yes, at mine too. I'm trying to figure out the source that Jepp, for example, uses to determine those differences between "standard" ICAO rules and each country's rules. And where are those "standard" rules that other countries differ from? If Jepp shows differences, my question is differences from what?
Jeppesen are merely a collator and distributor of aeronautical data gathered at (often) minimal expense from national (State) documents. That they sometimes reformat and thereby induce errors is a concern to most reputable State regulators but there is little that can be done to regulate them directly.

To answer the OP's conundrum: the ICAO SARPS (as detailed in the various Annexes and PANS) are translated into the State regulations (rules) and differences notified to the international community and ICAO by advice to ICAO in accordance with Article 38 of the Convention and noted in the State AIP.

Gne

Last edited by Gne; 19th Sep 2022 at 04:28. Reason: typo
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Old 19th Sep 2022, 06:19
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AFAIK you will find what is different in each country by looking at their AIP. A pain in the posterior, hence Jeppesen making big money out of extracting the relevant info and presenting it to the flight crew.
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Old 19th Sep 2022, 08:09
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Originally Posted by Gne View Post
Jeppesen are merely a collator and distributor of aeronautical data gathered at (often) minimal expense from national (State) documents. That they sometimes reformat and thereby induce errors is a concern to most reputable State regulators but there is little that can be done to regulate them directly.

To answer the OP's conundrum: the ICAO SARPS (as detailed in the various Annexes and PANS) are translated into the State regulations (rules) and differences notified to the international community and ICAO by advice to ICAO in accordance with Article 38 of the Convention and noted in the State AIP.

Gne
Originally Posted by iggy View Post
AFAIK you will find what is different in each country by looking at their AIP. A pain in the posterior, hence Jeppesen making big money out of extracting the relevant info and presenting it to the flight crew.
OK, between these two posts I'm getting somewhere.

So each country has their own AIP, which upon further Googling is an Aeronautical Information Publication. Per the Wikipedia article on AIPs, they're standardized by countries through an agreement with ICAO. They tend to come in three parts- General, Enroute, and Aerodromes. So if one wants to learn about a specific country's rules, they'd have to dig through that country's AIP themselves or use Jeppesen to summarize the rules and variances.

OK, and continuing with GNE's narrative and doing a little more Googling, ICAO has SARPs (Standards and Recommended Practices) contained in 19 annexes and PANS (Procedures for Air Navigation Services) contained in six documents. None are regulatory (ICAO can't enforce) but the world apparently uses them as a basis for their own country's rules.

And if a country deviates from ICAO's SARPs and PANs, Article 38 asks that the country notify ICAO of those changes. Is there a place where one can find one country's deviations from ICAO SARPs and PANs if they "self disclose" these deviations?

So is that pretty much it? Am I missing anything?

The 19 annexes:
https://skybrary.aero/articles/icao-...and-doc-series

The 6 ICAO PANS
https://aviation.stackexchange.com/q...their-contents
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Old 19th Sep 2022, 08:24
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Originally Posted by waterfalls123 View Post
Thanks. Yes, at mine too. I'm trying to figure out the source that Jepp, for example, uses to determine those differences between "standard" ICAO rules and each country's rules. And where are those "standard" rules that other countries differ from? If Jepp shows differences, my question is differences from what?
Each country publishes their differences in their AIP GEN 1.7 Section. These differences are also published on the ICAO Electronic Filing of Differences (EFOD) site which you need a State Login to access.

The Base Rules as you call them are set up as follows. Each member state has to abide by the Chicago Convention and there are no differences allowed to the provisions of convention.
The Annexes to the Convention set up the base line for the Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPS), however are only applicable if a State adopts these into local Regulations - The State has to notify if they have a difference to a Standard, however not all States notify differences to recommended practices and if a State does not adopt a recommended practice it is usually up to the State to decide if they notify such as a difference or not.

The PANS do not have the same status as the Standards and Recommended Practices. PANS are approved by the Council and recommended to Contracting States for worldwide application. The PANS do not carry the status afforded to Standards therefore, do not come within the obligation imposed by Article 38 of the Convention to notify differences in the
event of non-implementation. However, the provision of Annex 15 related to the publication in their Aeronautical Information Publications of lists of significant differences between their procedures and the related ICAO procedures. Again not all States List their differences in GEN 1.7 for the PANS.

The Civil Aviation Regulations or the AIP will be the source document for States Rules. Generally the AIP ENR 1 gives an overview of the main rules applicable when operating in the airspace and list State specific requirements.

In International Airspace (over the High Seas) the provisions of Annex 2 (Rules of the Air) are applied without differences, and any difference a State has with Annex 2 is only applicable over their territorial airspace (usually up to 12 NM from the Shoreline)

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Old 19th Sep 2022, 08:36
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As a postscript, Annexes and PANS can be obtained (at cost) direct from the ICAO Store, but many can also be found unofficially on the web, posted by various parties including some NCAAs.
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Old 19th Sep 2022, 08:39
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Examples:

- ICAO https://www.icao.int/Meetings/AMC/MA...142_app_en.pdf
5.1 Publication of differences

- USA https://www.faa.gov/air_traffic/publ...ction_1.7.html
.

Last edited by safetypee; 19th Sep 2022 at 08:51.
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Old 19th Sep 2022, 17:23
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Originally Posted by Little One View Post
Each country publishes their differences in their AIP GEN 1.7 Section. These differences are also published on the ICAO Electronic Filing of Differences (EFOD) site which you need a State Login to access.

The Base Rules as you call them are set up as follows. Each member state has to abide by the Chicago Convention and there are no differences allowed to the provisions of convention.
The Annexes to the Convention set up the base line for the Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPS), however are only applicable if a State adopts these into local Regulations - The State has to notify if they have a difference to a Standard, however not all States notify differences to recommended practices and if a State does not adopt a recommended practice it is usually up to the State to decide if they notify such as a difference or not.

The PANS do not have the same status as the Standards and Recommended Practices. PANS are approved by the Council and recommended to Contracting States for worldwide application. The PANS do not carry the status afforded to Standards therefore, do not come within the obligation imposed by Article 38 of the Convention to notify differences in the
event of non-implementation. However, the provision of Annex 15 related to the publication in their Aeronautical Information Publications of lists of significant differences between their procedures and the related ICAO procedures. Again not all States List their differences in GEN 1.7 for the PANS.

The Civil Aviation Regulations or the AIP will be the source document for States Rules. Generally the AIP ENR 1 gives an overview of the main rules applicable when operating in the airspace and list State specific requirements.

In International Airspace (over the High Seas) the provisions of Annex 2 (Rules of the Air) are applied without differences, and any difference a State has with Annex 2 is only applicable over their territorial airspace (usually up to 12 NM from the Shoreline)
Wow thanks Little. Very informative. I have some reading to do : )
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Old 19th Sep 2022, 17:24
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Originally Posted by DaveReidUK View Post
As a postscript, Annexes and PANS can be obtained (at cost) direct from the ICAO Store, but many can also be found unofficially on the web, posted by various parties including some NCAAs.
Originally Posted by safetypee View Post
Thanks Dave and Safety!
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Old 24th Sep 2022, 04:24
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variations

A state may elect to have a variation from a standard in the Annex for a period of 6 months, thereafter it is required to notify all signatories of the variation from the standards. For day to day, the Jeppesen ATC pages for each country give a good breakdown of variations of rules. Each state is also supposed to establish a position on its Electronic filing of Differences matrix of compliance with ICAO standards (& recommended practices). Amazingly one of the best laid out versions of that is with the NZ CAA, almost a pleasure to work with their rules.

https://www.aviation.govt.nz/about-u...nization-icao/






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Old 27th Sep 2022, 22:09
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Originally Posted by fdr View Post
A state may elect to have a variation from a standard in the Annex for a period of 6 months, thereafter it is required to notify all signatories of the variation from the standards. For day to day, the Jeppesen ATC pages for each country give a good breakdown of variations of rules. Each state is also supposed to establish a position on its Electronic filing of Differences matrix of compliance with ICAO standards (& recommended practices). Amazingly one of the best laid out versions of that is with the NZ CAA, almost a pleasure to work with their rules.

https://www.aviation.govt.nz/about-u...nization-icao/


Thanks FDR!!
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