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How are modern aircraft checklists created/certified?

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How are modern aircraft checklists created/certified?

Old 4th Jan 2021, 02:03
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How are modern aircraft checklists created/certified?

Hi there,

A friend from another industry is interested in applying aviation style checklists to their area of business. They have asked me many questions about checklists and how they are used in normal and non-normal scenarios. However the latest question is how are checklists created/certified? I am just a regular line pilot but would hazard a guess that during manufacture and design on prototypes initially generic checklists may be used. Then test pilots along with systems engineers will add various items to the basic checklist specific to type. And then during certification it all goes off to the regulator to be approved. And once it gets to the airlines, customers can add to checklists as they see fit?

Is this how it works? What kind of documents would control this process? FAA/EASA regulations in particular? Is there a more scientific method?

Following on from that; how do airline's go about adding or taking from a checklist? Does it always require approval from the authority?

Many thanks for all replies and references very much appreciated!

BD
BoeingDriver99 is offline  
Old 4th Jan 2021, 12:55
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There's some good info and research here https://ti.arc.nasa.gov/m/profile/ad...Checklists.pdf

Also, don't forget the task card system used by engineering could also be useful.
Often these would be divided into simple and complex tasks.
A simple task would only be one or two steps with the task card stating something like "replace component IAW AMM ???" with a single sign off.
A complex task would stage what actions need to be done with a sign off for each action, so for example
1) Remove Panel
2) Replace component
3) Function check
4) Reinstall Panel

I hope this helps

Webby


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Old 4th Jan 2021, 13:05
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Following on from that; how do airline's go about adding or taking from a checklist?
In 1974 a small Central Pacific airline obtained two new Boeing 737-200 aircraft. For the first month of operation a Boeing instructor pilot accompanied the flight crews during initial line flights. He noticed that the operator had added several more items to the standard Boeing checklists published in the QRH. These additions were the personal opinions of the chief pilot and included for example in the Pre-Start scan the switching on and off of the anti-skid switch to ensure the anti-skid light caution light worked.

The Boeing instructor pilot made the point that many of the additional checklist items required by the chief pilot were superfluous. In addition he stated that in designing aircraft checklists there was a limit to the number of items to be checked beyond which a flight engineer or third person in the cockpit was required. For example the Boeing 727. For that reason Boeing had automated some systems such the pressurisation systems in the 737-200 in order to satisfy the rules for a two pilot cockpit. Not only that, but eye movements were also taken into consideration as checklists or scans were made.

In the case of this new operator of the Boeing 737-200, the additional non-essential checklist items required by the chief pilot nullified the two pilot concept of checklist design. The Boeing instructor pilot (who had written the original Boeing 737 Pilot Training Manual or PTM) then stated in a semi serious manner that the airline should ground its aircraft unless checkist item numbers were reduced in line with the two crew concept.

Checklist design by the aircraft manufacturer is only one part of the certification process. Flight operations management of airlines need to be cognizant of this and avoid the temptation of adding further items lest Certification requirements be breeched.

Centaurus is offline  
Old 4th Jan 2021, 15:14
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Aviation 'checklists' are in several categories.
Emergency drills and procedures in the approved flight manual (AFM) must not be changed without approval from the manufacturer / regulator because they relate to the safety of the specific aircraft / systems. There are a few normal checklists in this category which relate to system checks and continued airworthiness.

Other checks and procedures are published in the flight crew operating manual. These may be customised, but prior agreement (no technical objection) with the manufacture is recommended.

The processes are deep inside certification requirements CS25, including part 25.1518 AFM

General web search, check histories; also consider medical checklist advice.

https://publicapps.caa.co.uk/docs/33/CAP708.PDF

http://publicapps.caa.co.uk/docs/33/CAP676.PDF

https://publicapps.caa.co.uk/docs/33/CAP%201010.pdf

https://www.faa.gov/data_research/re...ia/am91-07.pdf

https://flightsafety.org/asw-article...ist-confusion/

https://www.planeandpilotmag.com/art...except-doesnt/

https://www.easa.europa.eu/sites/def...ort_1-2012.pdf

safetypee is offline  
Old 5th Jan 2021, 06:04
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Great stuff, thanks guys. Plenty to get started on there.

BoeingDriver99 is offline  

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