# Accurate Temperature Correction Formula

Thread Starter

Join Date: Jun 2001

Location: at the edge of the alps

Posts: 298

**Accurate Temperature Correction Formula**

I am trying to develop an Excel formula for exact temperature correction for a friend, following the "accurate" formula from PANS-OPS Section III 4.3.4.1:

Correction = trianglehPaircraft - trianglehGaircraft = (-triangleTstd/L0) * Ln[(1 + L0 * trianglehPaircraft)/(T0 + L0*hPaerodrome)]

Where:

trianglehPaircraft = Aircraft height above aerodrome (pressure) ft

trianglehGaircraft = Aircraft height above aerodrome (geopotential) ft

triangleTstd = Temperature deviation from the ISA temperature K

L0 = Standard temperature lapse rate with pressure

altitude in the first layer (sea level to tropopause)

of the ISA.(See note (b) below) K/ft

T0 = Standard temperature at sea level K

hPaerodrome = Aerodrome height (pressure) ft

I have devised the following Excel Formula:

=(-"ISADEV"/-0,0019812)*LN((1+-0,0019812*"MDH")/(288,15+-0,0019812*"APAlt"))

where "ISADEV" is the temperature deviation from ISA (usually a negative number in cold weather)

"MDH" is the minimum descent height in ft

"APAlt" is the airport altitude in ft

-0,0019812 is the lapse rate in K/ft and 288,15 is ISA/sea level in K.

This results in meaningless results.

I am challenged by not really understanding why the basic formula should work and would be grateful for any hints on where I might have erred in applying it.

Correction = trianglehPaircraft - trianglehGaircraft = (-triangleTstd/L0) * Ln[(1 + L0 * trianglehPaircraft)/(T0 + L0*hPaerodrome)]

Where:

trianglehPaircraft = Aircraft height above aerodrome (pressure) ft

trianglehGaircraft = Aircraft height above aerodrome (geopotential) ft

triangleTstd = Temperature deviation from the ISA temperature K

L0 = Standard temperature lapse rate with pressure

altitude in the first layer (sea level to tropopause)

of the ISA.(See note (b) below) K/ft

T0 = Standard temperature at sea level K

hPaerodrome = Aerodrome height (pressure) ft

I have devised the following Excel Formula:

=(-"ISADEV"/-0,0019812)*LN((1+-0,0019812*"MDH")/(288,15+-0,0019812*"APAlt"))

where "ISADEV" is the temperature deviation from ISA (usually a negative number in cold weather)

"MDH" is the minimum descent height in ft

"APAlt" is the airport altitude in ft

-0,0019812 is the lapse rate in K/ft and 288,15 is ISA/sea level in K.

This results in meaningless results.

I am challenged by not really understanding why the basic formula should work and would be grateful for any hints on where I might have erred in applying it.

Join Date: Jun 2003

Location: LSZH

Posts: 349

It all seems terribly overcomplicated

The ISA model is quite simple and straightforward...

The ISA model is quite simple and straightforward...

**Metric:**T = Twhere0- 6.5 (h/1000)

T0is the ISA temperature (15C)

his altitude in meters

T is the temperature at altitudeh

**Imperial:**T = Twhere0- 1.98 (h/1000)

T0is the ISA temperature (15C)

h is altitude in feet

T is the temperature at altitudeh

Thread Starter

Join Date: Jun 2001

Location: at the edge of the alps

Posts: 298

@eckhard: the 4% formula is the "simple" formula but limited to temperatures down to -15C. Beyond that, PANS OPS offers a table that covers lower temperatures but is limited to 5000ft and two more formulae, the more complicated of which was the reason for my post.

As probably all those formulae are but child's play for a modern Computer, IMHO it does not make sense to use the simplified versions rather than going for the most accurate calculation.

@WeeJam: I have understood lapse rate (which is 1,9812C per 1000ft to be exact ) but lapse rate is just one building block for calculating cold temperature correction.

Any other input welcome. It must be possible to solve this!

As probably all those formulae are but child's play for a modern Computer, IMHO it does not make sense to use the simplified versions rather than going for the most accurate calculation.

@WeeJam: I have understood lapse rate (which is 1,9812C per 1000ft to be exact ) but lapse rate is just one building block for calculating cold temperature correction.

Any other input welcome. It must be possible to solve this!

Join Date: Feb 2000

Location: 500 miles from Chaikhosi, Yogistan

Posts: 3,354

There's a simpler ICAO formula that's pretty good, without the ln....

Unless your friend is seriously seriously scientific (and in which case would know how to use it anyway?) try that one.

Unless your friend is seriously seriously scientific (and in which case would know how to use it anyway?) try that one.

Join Date: May 2006

Location: Australia

Posts: 386

Try this...

=(B6-B2)*((15-(B8+(0.00198*B2)))/((273+(B8+(0.00198*B2)))-(0.5*0.00198*((B6-B2)+B2))))

Where: B6 is aircraft alt (ft)

B2 is aerodrome elevation (ft)

B8 is aerodrome temperature

The formula is copied straight from my spreadsheet and should work if the correct values are assigned. The formula is an older one but should work for your purposes.

Alpha

=(B6-B2)*((15-(B8+(0.00198*B2)))/((273+(B8+(0.00198*B2)))-(0.5*0.00198*((B6-B2)+B2))))

Where: B6 is aircraft alt (ft)

B2 is aerodrome elevation (ft)

B8 is aerodrome temperature

The formula is copied straight from my spreadsheet and should work if the correct values are assigned. The formula is an older one but should work for your purposes.

Alpha

Thread Starter

Join Date: Jun 2001

Location: at the edge of the alps

Posts: 298

@alphacentauri:

Thanks, this seems to be the first equation from 4.3.3 that is valid for altimeter setting sources up to 10.000ft (which should be sufficient for Europe) but only 5000ft above source.

According to 8168 this equation was used to calculate the "standard table" that is also valid up to 5000ft above source.

So it can't be used for higher altitudes of rather low-lying airports in mountainous areas (such as Innsbruck or Geneva) which have minimum crossing altitudes more than 5000ft above the airport.

Thanks, this seems to be the first equation from 4.3.3 that is valid for altimeter setting sources up to 10.000ft (which should be sufficient for Europe) but only 5000ft above source.

According to 8168 this equation was used to calculate the "standard table" that is also valid up to 5000ft above source.

So it can't be used for higher altitudes of rather low-lying airports in mountainous areas (such as Innsbruck or Geneva) which have minimum crossing altitudes more than 5000ft above the airport.

Join Date: Oct 2016

Location: Japan

Posts: 1

**Cannot calculate Accurate Method**

Hi everyone,

I have a simple question, cannot calculate following formula for use following example value as Ln value was minus. (excel shows "#NUM!" error)

How can I get a correct answer ?

Ex.

Airport Temp; -40C

Airport Elevation; 10ft

Aircraft Altitude; 3000ft

=(-"ISADEV"/-0,0019812)*LN((1+-0,0019812*"MDH")/(288,15+-0,0019812*"APAlt"))

where "ISADEV" is the temperature deviation from ISA (usually a negative number in cold weather)

"MDH" is the minimum descent height in ft

"APAlt" is the airport altitude in ft

-0,0019812 is the lapse rate in K/ft and 288,15 is ISA/sea level in K.

I have a simple question, cannot calculate following formula for use following example value as Ln value was minus. (excel shows "#NUM!" error)

How can I get a correct answer ?

Ex.

Airport Temp; -40C

Airport Elevation; 10ft

Aircraft Altitude; 3000ft

=(-"ISADEV"/-0,0019812)*LN((1+-0,0019812*"MDH")/(288,15+-0,0019812*"APAlt"))

where "ISADEV" is the temperature deviation from ISA (usually a negative number in cold weather)

"MDH" is the minimum descent height in ft

"APAlt" is the airport altitude in ft

-0,0019812 is the lapse rate in K/ft and 288,15 is ISA/sea level in K.

Join Date: Jan 2019

Location: Hamburg

Posts: 2

Hi to all,

has anyone got a solution for this? Maybe there's a mistake within the displayed formula.

I've tried out everything (+/- values, °C iso K...) but there's never a result that makes any sense.

Has anyone access to the equation #24 of the ESDU publication Performance, Vol. 2, Item No. 77022?

Thanxx al lot so far...

has anyone got a solution for this? Maybe there's a mistake within the displayed formula.

I've tried out everything (+/- values, °C iso K...) but there's never a result that makes any sense.

Has anyone access to the equation #24 of the ESDU publication Performance, Vol. 2, Item No. 77022?

Thanxx al lot so far...

Join Date: Jan 2004

Location: Hiding

Posts: 955

Spreadsheet

This might help. There's a link to a spreadsheet at the bottom of the article under "Further Reading"

This might help. There's a link to a spreadsheet at the bottom of the article under "Further Reading"

Join Date: Jan 2011

Location: Seattle

Posts: 603

I have devised the following Excel Formula:

=(-"ISADEV"/-0,0019812)*LN((1+-0,0019812*"MDH")/(288,15+-0,0019812*"APAlt"))

where "ISADEV" is the temperature deviation from ISA (usually a negative number in cold weather)

"MDH" is the minimum descent height in ft

"APAlt" is the airport altitude in ft

-0,0019812 is the lapse rate in K/ft and 288,15 is ISA/sea level in K.

This results in meaningless results.

I am challenged by not really understanding why the basic formula should work and would be grateful for any hints on where I might have erred in applying it.

=(-"ISADEV"/-0,0019812)*LN((1+-0,0019812*"MDH")/(288,15+-0,0019812*"APAlt"))

where "ISADEV" is the temperature deviation from ISA (usually a negative number in cold weather)

"MDH" is the minimum descent height in ft

"APAlt" is the airport altitude in ft

-0,0019812 is the lapse rate in K/ft and 288,15 is ISA/sea level in K.

This results in meaningless results.

I am challenged by not really understanding why the basic formula should work and would be grateful for any hints on where I might have erred in applying it.

Join Date: Jan 2019

Location: Hamburg

Posts: 2

Good news if anyone is interested....

I found the bug, the accompaning pdf documentation from Eurocontrol folowing the link in post #12 shows the correct equation.

=(-"ISADEV"/-0,0019812)*LN(

the 1+ is prior the fraction... Sombody within ICAO seems not to be aware of maths basics ;-)

Like that, it works fine...

BG

I found the bug, the accompaning pdf documentation from Eurocontrol folowing the link in post #12 shows the correct equation.

=(-"ISADEV"/-0,0019812)*LN(

**1+**(-0,0019812*"MDH")/(288,15+-0,0019812*"APAlt"))the 1+ is prior the fraction... Sombody within ICAO seems not to be aware of maths basics ;-)

Like that, it works fine...

BG