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-   -   ATPL theory questions (https://www.pprune.org/professional-pilot-training-includes-ground-studies/455580-atpl-theory-questions.html)

dartagnan 26th Nov 2007 22:18

what is TX in a metar or TAF
found this question somewhere...

Mercenary Pilot 26th Nov 2007 22:24

I think TX is maximum temp, and TN is minimum temp forecast. :8

HeliCraig 26th Nov 2007 22:27

Never seen it actually used (at least in the UK), but it is Max Temp.

This page is always good: http://aviation.weathersa.co.za/codesexpl.php

LH2 26th Nov 2007 22:44

Never seen it actually used (at least in the UK)
Commonly seen at a number of Mediterranean airfields, e.g.:

TAF LEBL 261700Z 270024 34010KT CAVOK
TEMPO 0024 FEW025 PROB30
TEMPO 0010 34015G25KT
BECMG 1214 20010KT
BECMG 1820 35010KT TX16/13Z TN08/06Z

shlittlenellie 26th Nov 2007 22:57

Mostly seen in Spanish met.

Willows 26th Nov 2007 23:18

Not in the abbreviations list on the Met office site. I shall pen it in on my copy.

Not sure if these links will work. You need a login (it is free)


TAF decode

METAR decode

RingwaySam 27th Nov 2007 00:19

Hi all,

I came across this one a few days ago, although it's todays, what does the RS0109KT 050209KT 230109KT Stand for?

LPMA 270000Z 03009G20KT 350V070 9999 SCT018 19/12 Q1023 RS0109KT 050209KT 230109KT
LPMA 262300Z 270009 03010KT 9999 SCT018
TEMPO 0009 03012G22KT SCT018 BKN030


pilotms 27th Nov 2007 03:57

These are some points were they are reporting the Winds. RS stands for Rosario.

Bus14 27th Nov 2007 11:34

LPMA is Funchal/Madeira. RS (Rosario) is about a mile short of the 05 threshold and sits at the end of a valley down which winds blow which can cause all sorts of chaos on short finals. 05 is the touch down anemometer for RWY05 and 23 is the same for RWY23. The main wind is the tower wind. The Portugese AIP has the detailed rules on the limits that apply for take-off and landing.

Although the runway is now quite long, LPMA remains one of the more challenging/fun airports to visit. Just think of it as an aircraft carrier moored alongside a big cliff and you get the idea:cool:.

RingwaySam 27th Nov 2007 11:56

Interesting. Thanks! :ok:

PintofT 17th Aug 2009 18:32

ATPL Air Law ICAO Articles & Annexes
Not that I'm work-shy, you understand......but is one expected to remember each of the Chicago Convention's articles & annexes, what each refers to and their implications?

And I thought the FREDA thing was tough!! :ooh:

Whirlygig 17th Aug 2009 18:45

You might one, maybe two if you're unlucky, questions asking which Annex number deals with .... whatever.

However, you are expected to know the contents and their implications (if not the number).



greekboy 17th Aug 2009 19:56

Table 20 ICAO Annexes
Personnel Licensing (Getting a license is my Number 1 priority)
Rules of the Air (2 Sets of Rules, VFR and IFR)
Meteorological Services (3C/100ft DALR)
Aeronautical Charts (4 Cardinal Points)
Dimensional Units (CRP 5)
Operation of Aircraft (DC6)
Nationality and Registration Marks (The League of Seven Nations)
Airworthiness (Looks like a propeller)
Facilitation (NEIN in German Immigration)
Aeronautical Communications (100 for the Operator)
Air Traffic Control Services (1 to 1 Personal Services)
Search & Rescue (The one before Accident Investigation)
Accident Investigation (Unlucky for some)
Aerodromes (14 Aerodromes around Heathrow)
Aeronautical Information Services (Looks like IS)
Environmental Protection (16 Age of Consent, use protection)
Security (17ft security fence required)
Dangerous Goods (At 18 you can drink but its DANGEROUS to drive)

greekboy 17th Aug 2009 19:58

Oh by the way. this is not my brainchild but some earlier student from BGS.

g luck


PintofT 17th Aug 2009 22:58

Thanks for that guys!

Air1980 18th Aug 2009 01:28

Any other memory aids? Like for example the chart specifications (Lambert etc)?

PintofT 18th Aug 2009 01:45

Air1980, PM sent. May be of help.

Mohit_C 18th Aug 2009 09:56

greekboy one correction. The DALR is 3C/1000ft OR 1C/100m.

thibautg78 31st Dec 2009 17:42

Instrumentation (atpl questions)
Hi all,

Here are a few questions from oxford school regarding instrumenation which, actually, are not that hard but i prefer to ask for advise before submitting my assessment.
So enjoy it !

1) With a fully equipped FMS aircraft the following selections are usually utilised in flight :
a- LNAV only
b- LNAV and VNAV
c- VNAV only
d- LNAV and VNAV but not simultaneously

I'd answer d), cause if i have well understood lnav is used during cruise while vnav is more concerned with climb&descent, so the use of both modes cannot be simultaneous. Is that right?

2) If the radio altimeter fails :
a- height information disappears
b- aural warning given
c- radio alt flag, red lamp, and aural warning given
d- radio alt flag and red lamp activates

I'm quite hesitating between c) and d).

3) If an aircraft fitted with two FMSs, the pilots' displays show contradictory information. What mode of FMS is in use?
a- independant mode
b- dual mode
c- single mode
d- separate mode

Answer a) ?

Thanks guys!

_ShIfTy_ 31st Dec 2009 20:00

I would go with answer B to the first question. L-NAV and V-NAV are both used during most part of the flight.

AlpineSkier 31st Dec 2009 22:05

" I would of went..."

Is it only when they can't tie their shoelaces that they are officially morons ?

hvogt 31st Dec 2009 22:42


I can't say I have always been successful in my flight school's quality checks, but still I'd like to take an educated guess.
  1. LNAV and VNAV can be used simultaneously, and in fact they are during climb and descent. How else would you follow an SID or a STAR? However, VNAV is not usually used during cruise flight. Instead the APFDS is used in height lock, but this does not mean you cannot operate LNAV and VNAV together. So, the correct answer is "b".
  2. I'm not certain either. In an A320 an RA failure gives a single chime (i. e. an aural warning) and a master caution light (not a red lamp, as in the question, but still a lamp). Hence, I would tend to "c".
  3. The correct answer is "a" (independent mode). In single mode only one FMS is operational. I've never heard of dual or seperate mode.
Good luck with your assessment.

thibautg78 1st Jan 2010 14:22

Thanks guys, i'll keep you aware of the right answers once i have submittted my on-line assessment.

mad_jock 1st Jan 2010 14:37

I think in the majority of old types the first thing you will know about a rad alt failure is the EGPWS going to the wind. Then when you manage to find out where they have fitted the sodding thing on this airframe it will have a red flag on it.

But a word of caution the ATPL's use the 737 as it's generic Jet.

Be a bit careful using Airbus as a reference to answer questions.

On my type the answers would be


Coldbear 2nd Jan 2010 20:57

On my type...

On the A320 the answers would go like this:

1) B - We can and do use LNAV/VNAV together.

2) B - it's an amber light on the airbus

3) A

hope it helps and good luck,

Piltdown Man 2nd Jan 2010 23:26

1. In the UK, HDG is the normal selection. (But I think they are looking for B). FWIW, the use of VNAV on its own is generally not recommended. And on an Embraer E jet, I wouldn't use VNAV at all because it's pants.
2. What a crap question, it is too type and version specific.
3. Again, a type specific question, but A would probably be the best answer.

If I was asked these questions in an exam, I would refuse too answer them as they are too type and version specific.

giladal 3rd Nov 2010 00:04

Need help with a navigation problem...
HI guys,

Ok, here is the question. I understand how to get the NDB true direction, but for the love of god, i cant understand how they came up with 273 Radial as the one the aircraft has intercepted.. Anyone?

An aircraft maintaining heading 140(M) at 057E (VAR 12E) takes a relative bearing reading of 295 from an NDB station co-located with a VOR at 32N 088E (VAR 8E). Find the true direction of the straight line that should be plotted from the NDB to the aircraft on a Mercator chart. Which radial has the aircraft intercepted at that moment? (Use mean latitude 27N).

Correct answer: R-273, 274

giladal 3rd Nov 2010 17:50

Wow.. 100 + views and no replies...

No worries, I figured it out..

You take the True bearing, add the conversion angle and then convert it to magnetic.

274T + 7 - 8E = 273 Radial.

Now I am stuck with Lambert charts...

RichardH 3rd Nov 2010 21:49

Good question, the key bit is understanding for NDBs variation is measured at the aircraft and VORs measured at the VOR. Also straight line on Merc = Rhumb Line. Remember radio bearings follow great circles.

NDB - Hdg(T) = 152 + 295 = 447 -360 = 087(T) from A/C to NDB
As there is more than 2degrees ch long need to apply convergency.

CGY = CH Long (31) x sine 27 (.4540) = 14
Conversation Angle = 14/2 = 7
RL Track from A/C to NDB/VOR = 094 + 180 = 274 to plot on Merc from NDB.

GC Track at NDB/VOR = 087 + CGY (14) = 101 + 180 = 281(T)
281 - 8E at VOR = 273(M) = radial or QDR

Might help to draw a picture and there are a number of ways to do this question.

Ah happy days!

giladal 3rd Nov 2010 22:01

Thank you very much richard. I really appreciate it :)

Here is another problem I got stuck with.. Any idea?

Here is my question:

Following a Rhumb line track starting from E in Lat N050.

E to F 000T, 300NM
F to G 090T, 300NM
G to H 180T, 300NM

What is the Rhumb line bearing and distance of H to E?

The RLB just at a glance seems to be 090... but the distance??

I tried and tried, and then skipped, but would really appreciate it if someone can help.


G CEXO 3rd Nov 2010 22:17

466.7 NM

that's the best I could come up with.

By the way, you will need to use the Departure formula as you are on a latitude of 50 degrees. Hence 60 NM is not 60 minutes.

Departure = change in longitude x Cos Latitude

Change in Longitude in minutes.

giladal 4th Nov 2010 00:06

Hi G.

Thanks for trying, but the answer is 336Nm.

300 / cos55 = 523nm

523 x cos50 = 336Nm

Thanks again ;)

RichardH 4th Nov 2010 19:42

Pleased to assist.

Assume E is at N50 (as given) on prime meridian.
E to F 300 so F is N55 E/W000
F to G 300/cos55/60 = CH long of 8:43 so G N55 E008 43
South to H will bring you to N50 E008 43

I think RL bearing is 270 (but I am a little tired).
8:43 = 523 min * cos 50 = 336 nm.

You must get into drawing diagrams.
Very common type of question and is all about departure and ch long varying with cosine of latitude due to spherical earth.

Members of the flat earth society think you end you back at the start!

giladal 5th Nov 2010 22:27

Hey Richard,

Ok., here is a new one ;)

This one seems a little bit more complex.

Two aircraft are converging to the same reporting point at FL 330. The wind is 350 / 60kts. At 0700 the distance between the aircraft is 130NM, and the controller requests aircraft A to reduce the Mach number so there will be 3 minutes separation over the reporting point.

Aircraft A: .76M, TAT = -21c, Track 330(T)
Aircraft B: .79, TAT = -19c, Track 060(T)

1)What is the ETA of aircraft A at the reporting point?
2) What Mach number should aircraft A maintain if the SID temp is -45c

Looking forward to hearing from you.

AVIATROZ 24th Jun 2011 19:41

ATPL theory questions
I need help regarding solving of these questions,i am not able to get the concept to solve these meteorology problem,i would really appreciate if some one could help me out in these concepts

Q1. MSA given as 12000ft, flying over mountains in temperatures +9*c ,QNH set as 1023.what will the true altitude when 12000 ft is reached?
a. 11,940
b. 11,148
c. 12,210
D. 12,864
ANS -D{..........how plz explain.....}

Q2.Flying at FL135above the sea, the Radio altimeter indicates a true altitude of 13500ft. the local QNH is 1019hpa.hence the crossed air mass is on average,

a. At ISAstandard atmospher
b. Colder than ISA
C. Warmer than ISA
D. There is insufficient information
ANS-B{...why plz explain...}

Q3. You are flying at FL160 with an OAT OF -27*C.QNH is 1003 hpa. what is your true altitude?
a.15540 ft
b.15090 ft
c.16330 ft
d.15730 ft
ANS-B{.....how plz explain.....}

Q4. What is approximate vertical interval which is equal to a pressure change of 1hpa at an altitude of 5500m?
a. 8m{27ft}
b. 32m{105ft}
c. 64m{210ft}
d. 15m{50ft}
ANS-D{....how plz explain...}.


Conan the Vulgarian 24th Jun 2011 20:07

Q1. True altitude differs from indicated by 4% for every 10 degrees difference in temperature from ISA. True altitude is higher than indicated in warm air, lower in cold air. At 12,000 ft ISA temperature is -9 degrees, if the actual temperature is +9 then the temperature is ISA+18, so 1.8 x 4 = 7.2 percent difference, the actual altitude is 107.2% of the indicated.

Q2. If the QNH was 1013mb, you'd be at 13,500 feet when at FL135. Since if you increased the subscale setting to 1019 the indication would increase, then FL135 is actually a bit lower than 13,500 ft. (You're flying into higher pressure air than ISA, so you're higher than you would be if it were ISA). Since the radio altimeter says you are really at 13,500 feet, you must be in warmer than ISA air.

Q3. FL160 is 15,730 feet above sea level if the QNH is 1003. (FL measures from 1013 and since the pressure at sea level is 1003 the datum you are measuring from is below sea level). OAT is -27 wheras ISA temperature at your level would be -17, so it's ISA-10, so take off 4% to get 15100ft - 15090 is close enough.

Q4. 50ft and you just have to memorise these, although you could make a decent guess if you knew it was 27ft at sea level and about 100ft at airliner cruising levels, then 5500m=16000 odd feet will be somewhere in the middle.

Angleofattack 27th Jun 2011 17:03

Altimeter Calculations
Use the following formulas for Altimeter calculations

TA = IA + (4 x IA/1000 x ISA Dev) + (27 x (QNH Subscale))

where TA = true altitude, IA = indicated altitude, Subscale = altimeter subscale setting, ISA Dev = ISA temperature deviation (I assume you can calculate this). This will work for the vast majority of all altimetry questions, except PPL questions use 30ft (not 27).

This will give you the exact answers to questions 1, and 3. I think you mean the indicated altitude at an MSA (true) of 12000ft in Q1.

Question 2 is slightly flawed in that radio altimeters operate only up to 2500ft, and actually read height above the surface directly below rather than altitude. If you put this aside you can determine that the ISA dev is -ve, ie colder using the equation above.

The following formula

Height change per hPa(ft)= 96 x T/P

where T= temperature in Kelvin (C + 273), P = Pressure in hPa

In Q4, T= 252K, ISA in C is -21, as 5500m is approximately 18000ft, P = 500hPa

That gives
Height change per hPa = 96x252/500 = 48.4ft

AVIATROZ 16th Sep 2011 14:39

meteorology question
Q. you intend to overfly a mountain ridge at an altitude of 15000ft AMsL.The average air temp i s 15degree lover than IsA.the sealevel pressure 1003Hpa.which altimeter indication is needed?

Ans--16170ft...............plz explain hw to solve this problem

Kima 18th Sep 2011 18:24

Q. You intend to overfly a mountain ridge at an altitude of 15000ft AMSL.The average air temperature (=ISA Deviation) is 15 degree lower than ISA. The Sealevel Pressure (=QNH)1003Hpa. Which altimeter indication is needed?

15 x 15 x 4 = 900
1013 - 1003 = 10 x 27 = 270

900 + 270 = 1170

15000 + 1170 = 16170

Read Angleofattacks post.. and use the formulae
TA = IA + (4 x IA/1000 x ISA Dev) + (27 x (QNH Subscale))

Justwant2learn 8th Oct 2011 22:14

Drift and True altitude
Hello guys,

I am currently studying for my cdn atpl and I came across a MET question I cannot seem to grasp. The concept of port/starboard drift increasing/decreasing true altitude respectively. Now the in the spirit of trying to understand the subject rather than simply memorizing the port drift=increasing true alt and starboard drift=decreasing true altitude, I am trying to attempt to understand this concept. Now where I get mixed up is how do you know whats happening because you could get either port or starboard drift depending on where you sit around the low or the high right? Isn't it a matter of perspective? eg port drift: I could be to the east of a low or west of a high if i was on a west east trip right???


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