The closest I can think of right now is the "Accident Prevention Loop", introduced by Alan E. Diehl in 1989. The Accident Prevention Loop is the main subject of his paper "Human Performance Aspects of Aircraft Accidents", published as Chapter 15 of the book "Aviation Psychology" edited by Richard S. Jensen.
Just to give a general idea, the loop is made of three phases, named "Accident Generation", "Investigation Process" and "Preventive Measures".
Basically, according to this loop model, the events (Hazards, Incidents and Accidents) that happen in the "Accident Generation" phase are investigated through an "Investigation Process" consisting of fact-finding, analysis and board review, so that "Preventive Measures" can be put in place.
Speaking of "Preventive Measures", Diehl gives the following taxonomy:
Going from right to left, the measures become easier to implement but less effective.
The measures can be:
- Environment oriented: very expensive, effective and restrictive
ELIMINATE HAZARDS & RISKS: strict policy matters affecting the operational environment (e.g. no Single-Engine IFR public transport)
- Machine oriented: moderately expensive, effective and restrictive
INCORPORATE SAFETY FEATURES: integral safety features in aircraft products (e.g. stall-proof design)
PROVIDE WARNING DEVICES: usually less expensive, effective and restrictive of the above. E.g. stall warning horns
- Man oriented: less expensive, effective and restrictive
ESTABLISH PROCEDURAL SAFEGUARDS: checklists, SOPs, personnel selection standards, training, motivational campaigns, policy statements...
According to Diehl, "this taxonomy reflects well established system safety concepts" (e.g. MIL-STD-882
Did I get the point of your question? Was it something more specifically related to the design?