View Full Version : Parallel Runways Minimums


Magix
16th Feb 2010, 20:37
Hello All.

Do you know maybe what is a required minimum separation on ground between parallel runways in Europe? For Wing to Wing approaches and no wing to wing approaches.

I looking forward for your anwer. Thank You.

Best Regards
Luke



BARKAN
21st Feb 2010, 13:13
depends on many factors, see:

ICAO Doc.4444

Chapter 6. Separation in the Vicinity of Aerodromes


6.7 OPERATIONS ON PARALLEL OR NEAR-PARALLEL RUNWAYS

6.7.1 General

Where parallel or near-parallel runways are used for simultaneous operations, the requirements and procedures below shall apply.
Note.- Guidance material is contained in the Manual on Simultaneous Operations on Parallel or Near-Parallel Instrument Runways (SOIR) (Doc 9643).

6.7.2 Departing aircraft

6.7.2.1 TYPES OF OPERATION

Parallel runways may be used for independent instrument departures as follows:
a) both runways are used exclusively for departures (independent departures);
b) one runway is used exclusively for departures while the other runway is used for a mixture of arrivals and departures (semi-mixed operation); and
c) both runways are used for mixed arrivals and departures (mixed operation).
6.7.2.2 REQUIREMENTS AND PROCEDURES FOR INDEPENDENT PARALLEL DEPARTURES

Independent IFR departures may be conducted from parallel runways provided:
a) the runway centre lines are spaced by the distance specified in Annex 14, Volume I;
b) the departure tracks diverge by at least 15 degrees immediately after take-off;
c) suitable surveillance radar capable of identification of the aircraft within 2 km (1.0 NM) from the end of the runway is available; and
d) ATS operational procedures ensure that the required track divergence is achieved.

6.7.3 Arriving aircraft

6.7.3.1 TYPES OF OPERATIONS

6.7.3.1.1 Parallel runways may be used for simultaneous instrument operations for:

a) independent parallel approaches; or
b) dependent parallel approaches; or
c) segregated parallel operations.
6.7.3.1.2 Whenever parallel approaches are carried out, separate controllers should be responsible for the sequencing and spacing of arriving aircraft to each runway.

6.7.3.2 REQUIREMENTS AND PROCEDURES FOR INDEPENDENT PARALLEL APPROACHES

6.7.3.2.1 Independent parallel approaches may be conducted to parallel runways provided that:
a) the runway centre lines are spaced by the distance specified in Annex 14, Volume I; and
1) where runway centre lines are spaced by less than 1 310 m but not less than 1 035 m, suitable secondary surveillance radar (SSR) equipment, with a minimum azimuth accuracy of 0.06 degrees (one sigma), an update period of 2.5 seconds or less and a high resolution display providing position prediction and deviation alert is available; or
2) where runway centre lines are spaced by less than 1 525 m but not less than 1 310 m, SSR equipment with performance specifications other than the foregoing may be applied, provided they are equal to or beter than those stated under 3) below, and when it is determined that the safety of aircraft operation would not be adversely affected; or
3) where runway centre lines are spaced by 1 525 m or more, suitable surveillance radar with a minimum azimuth accuracy of 0.3 degrees (one sigma) or better and update period of 5 seconds or less is available;
b) instrument landing system (ILS) and/or microwave landing system (MLS) approaches are being conducted on both runways;
c) the missed approach track for one approach diverges by at least 30 degrees from the missed approach track of the adjacent approach;
d) an obstacle survey and evaluation is completed, as appropriate, for the areas adjacent to the final approach segments;
e) aircraft are advised of the runway identification and ILS localizer or MLS frequency as early as possible;
f) vectoring is used to intercept the ILS localizer course or the MLS final approach track;
g) a no transgression zone (NTZ) at least 610 m (2 000 ft) wide is established equidistant between extended runway centre lines and is depicted on the situation display;
h) separate controllers monitor the approaches to each runway and ensure that when the 300 m (1 000 ft) vertical separation is reduced:
1) aircraft do not penetrate the depicted NTZ; and
2) the applicable minimum longitudinal separation between aircraft on the same ILS localizer course or MLS final approach track is maintained; and
i) if no dedicated radio channels are available for the controllers to control the aircraft until landing:
1) transfer of communication of aircraft to the respective aerodrome controllerís channel is effected before the higher of two aircraft on adjacent final approach tracks intercepts the ILS glide path or the specified MLS elevation angle; and
2) the controllers monitoring the approaches to each runway are provided with the capability to override transmissions of aerodrome control on the respective radio channels for each arrival flow.
6.7.3.2.2 As early as practicable after an aircraft has established communication with approach control, the aircraft shall be advised that independent parallel approaches are in force. This information may be provided through the ATIS broadcasts.
6.7.3.2.3 When vectoring to intercept the ILS localizer course or MLS final approach track, the final vector shall enable the aircraft to intercept the ILS localizer course or MLS final approach track at an angle not greater than 30 degrees and to provide at least 2 km (1.0 NM) straight and level flight prior to ILS localizer course or MLS final approach track intercept. The vector shall also enable the aircraft to be established on the ILS localizer course or MLS final approach track in level flight for at least 3.7 km (2.0 NM) prior to intercepting the ILS glide path or specified MLS elevation angle.
6.7.3.2.4 A minimum of 300 m (1 000 ft) vertical separation or, subject to radar system and situation display capabilities, a minimum of 5.6 km (3.0 NM) radar separation shall be provided until aircraft are established:
a) inbound on the ILS localizer course and/or MLS final approach track; and
b) within the normal operating zone (NOZ).
6.7.3.2.5 Subject to radar system and situation display capabilities, a minimum of 5.6 km (3.0 NM) radar separation shall be provided between aircraft on the same ILS localizer course or MLS final approach track unless increased longitudinal separation is required due to wake turbulence or for other reasons.
Note 1.- See Chapter 8, 8.7.3.4.
Note 2.- An aircraft established on an ILS localizer course or MLS final approach track is separated from another aircraft established on an adjacent parallel ILS localizer course or MLS final approach track provided neither aircraft penetrates the NTZ as depicted on the situation display.
6.7.3.2.6 When assigning the final heading to intercept the ILS localizer course or MLS final approach track, the runway shall be confirmed, and the aircraft shall be advised of:
a) its position relative to a fix on the ILS localizer course or MLS final approach track;
b) the altitude to be maintained until established on the ILS localizer course or MLS final approach track to the ILS glide path or specified MLS elevation angle intercept point; and
c) if required, clearance for the appropriate ILS or MLS approach.
6.7.3.2.7 All approaches regardless of meteorological conditions shall be provided with flight path monitoring using radar. Control instructions and information necessary to ensure separation between aircraft and to ensure aircraft do not enter the NTZ shall be issued.
Note 1.- The primary responsibility for navigation on the ILS localizer course and/or MLS final approach track rests with the pilot. Control instructions and information are therefore issued only to ensure separation between aircraft and to ensure that aircraft do not penetrate the NTZ.
Note 2.- For the purpose of ensuring an aircraft does not penetrate the NTZ, the aircraft is considered to be the centre of its position symbol. However, the edges of the position symbols representing aircraft executing paralel approaches are not allowed to touch (see Chapter 8, 8.7.2).
6.7.3.2.8 When an aircraft is observed to overshoot the turn-on or to continue on a track which will penetrate the NTZ, the aircraft shall be instructed to return immediately to the correct track.
6.7.3.2.9 When an aircraft is observed penetrating the NTZ, the aircraft on the adjacent ILS localizer course or MLS final approach track shall be instructed to immediately climb and turn to the assigned altitude/height and heading in order to avoid the deviating aircraft. Where parallel approach obstacle assessment surfaces (PAOAS) criteria are applied for the obstacle assessment, the air traffic controller shall not issue the heading instruction to the aircraft below 120 m (400 ft) above the runway threshold elevation, and the heading instruction shall not exceed 45 degrees track difference with the ILS localizer course or MLS final approach track.
6.7.3.2.10 Flight path monitoring using radar shall not be terminated until:
a) visual separation is applied, provided procedures ensure that both controllers are advised whenever visual separation is applied;
b) the aircraft has landed, or in case of a missed approach, is at least 2 km (1.0 NM) beyond the departure end of the runway and adequate separation with any other traffic is established.
Note - There is no requirement to advise the aircraft that flight path monitoring using radar is terminated.
6.7.3.3 SUSPENSION OF INDEPENDENT PARALLEL APPROACHES TO CLOSELY-SPACED PARALLEL RUNWAYS

Independent parallel approaches to parallel runways spaced by less than 1 525 m between their centre lines shall be suspended under certain meteorological conditions, as prescribed by the appropriate ATS authority, including wind shear, turbulence, downdrafts, crosswind and significant meteorological conditions such as thunderstorms, which might otherwise increase ILS localizer course and/ or MLS final approach track deviations to the extent that safety may be impaired.
Note 1.- The increase in final approach track deviations would additionally result in an unacceptable level of deviation alerts being generated.
Note 2.- Guidance material relating to meteorological conditions is contained in the Manual on Simultaneous Operations on Parallel or Near-Parallel Instrument Runways (SOIR) (Doc 9643).
6.7.3.4 REQUIREMENTS AND PROCEDURES FOR DEPENDENT PARALLEL APPROACHES

6.7.3.4.1 Dependent parallel approaches may be conducted to parallel runways provided:
a) the runway centre lines are spaced by the distance specified in Annex 14, Volume I;
b) the aircraft are vectored to intercept the final approach track;
c) suitable surveillance radar with a minimum azimuth accuracy of 0.3 degrees (one sigma) and update period of 5 seconds or less is available;
d) ILS and/or MLS approaches are being conducted on both runways;
e) aircraft are advised that approaches are in use to both runways (this information may be provided through the ATIS);
f) the missed approach track for one approach diverges by at least 30 degrees from the missed approach track of the adjacent approach; and
g) approach control has a frequency override capability to aerodrome control.
6.7.3.4.2 A minimum of 300 m (1 000 ft) vertical separation or a minimum of 5.6 km (3.0 NM) radar separation shall be provided between aircraft during turn-on to parallel ILS localizer courses and/or MLS final approach tracks.
6.7.3.4.3 The minimum radar separation to be provided between aircraft established on the ILS localizer course and/or MLS final approach track shall be:
a) 5.6 km (3.0 NM) between aircraft on the same ILS localizer course or MLS final approach track unless increased longitudinal separation is required due to wake turbulence; and
b) 3.7 km (2.0 NM) between successive aircraft on adjacent ILS localizer courses or MLS final approach tracks.
6.7.3.5 REQUIREMENTS AND PROCEDURES FOR SEGREGATED PARALLEL OPERATIONS

6.7.3.5.1 Segregated parallel operations may be conducted on parallel runways provided:
a) the runway centre lines are spaced by the distance specified in Annex 14, Volume I; and
b) the nominal departure track diverges immediately after take-off by at least 30 degrees from the missed approach track of the adjacent approach (see Figure 6-1).
6.7.3.5.2 The minimum distance between parallel runway centre lines for segregated parallel operations may be decreased by 30 m for each 150 m that the arrival runway is staggered toward the arriving aircraft, to a minimum of 300 m (see Figure 6-2) and should be increased by 30 m for each 150 m that the arrival runway is staggered away from the arriving aircraft (see Figure 6-3).
http://www.servetbasol.com/Articles/ucuyorum/parallel-6-1.jpg
Figure 6-1. Segregated parallel operations (see 6.7.3.5.1 b))
http://www.servetbasol.com/Articles/ucuyorum/parallel-6-2.jpg
Figure 6-2. Segregated parallel operations where runways are staggered (see 6.7.3.5.2)
http://www.servetbasol.com/Articles/ucuyorum/parallel-6-3.jpg
Figure 6-3. Segregated parallel operations where runways are staggered (see 6.7.3.5.2)

6.7.3.5.3 The following types of approaches may be conducted in segregated parallel operations provided suitable surveillance radar and the appropriate ground facilities conform to the standard necessary for the specific type of approach:
a) ILS and/or MLS precision approach;
b) surveillance radar approach (SRA) or precision approach radar (PAR) approach; and
c) visual approach.
Note.- Guidance material is contained in the Manual on Simultaneous Operations on Parallel or Near-Parallel Instrument Runways (SOIR) (Doc 9643).


Annex 14 - AERODROMES

Chapter 3

Minimum distance between parallel runways

3.1.11 Recommendation.- Where parallel non-instrument runways are intended for simultaneous use, the minimum distance between their centre lines should be:
- 210 m where the higher code number is 3 or 4;
- 150 m where the higher code number is 2; and
- 120 m where the higher code number is 1.
Note.- Procedures for wake turbulence categorization of aircraft and wake turbulence separation minima are contained in the Procedures for Air Navigation Services - Air Traffic Management (PANS-ATM), Doc 4444, Chapter 4, 4.9 and Chapter 5, 5.8, respectively.
3.1.12 Recommendation.- Where parallel instrument runways are intended for simultaneous use subject to conditions specified in the PANS-ATM (Doc 4444) and the PANS-OPS (Doc 8168), Volume I, the minimum distance between their centre lines should be:
- 1 035 m for independent parallel approaches;
- 915 m for dependent parallel approaches;
- 760 m for independent parallel departures;
- 760 m for segregated parallel operations;
except that:
a)For segregated parallel operations the specified minimum distance:
1) may be decreased by 30m for each 150m that the arrival runway is segregated toward the arriving aircraft, to a minimum of 300m; and
2) should be increased 30m for each 150m that the arrival runway is staggered away from the arriving aircraft;
b) for independent parallel approaches, combination of minimum distances and associated conditions other then those specified in the PANS-ATM (Doc.4444) may be applied when it is determined that such combinations would not adversely affect the safety of aircraft operations.
Note: Procedures and facility requirements for simultaneous operations on parallel or near-parallel instrument runways are contained in the PANS-ATM (Doc.4444) Chapter.6 and the PANS-OPS (Doc.8168), Volume.I, Part.VII and Volume.II Parts II and III and relevant guidance is contained in the manual of Simultaneous Operations on Parallel or Near-parallel Instrument Runways (Doc.9643)

Magix
1st Mar 2010, 11:55
Thank you very much :)

servetbasol
15th May 2013, 11:00
This heading was published on 081102 at SERVET BASOL Flight Safety (http://www.servetbasol.com) under Articles page. Could have at least mention my name. Please respect.

JohnieWalker
17th May 2013, 19:41
Mention your name for copying it from 4444?