15th Oct 2005, 17:30
I am looking for the correct definition for an Emergency landing! Anyone?
I think it is correct to say that a divertion, to kick of a drunk pax, or to land because of a sick pax, is to be understood as an emergency landing
17th Oct 2005, 09:26
Not entirely sure that there is such a thing as an "emergency landing". However, if the pilot declares an emergency and subsequently lands (without crashing), then that would be a different matter. I don't know what it's like in Norway, but emergencies can be declared for a variety of well-defined reasons, the definitions of which are published in MATS part 1, UK AIP, etc....
Hope this helps.:ok:
17th Oct 2005, 18:54
I think your post is closest to a diversion. This can be because of an emergency or because of your drunk pax, ops want to etc etc.
A diversion is a landing at any other aerodrome other than the destination.
But your emergency landing doesn't have to be at an aerodrome. So, you could say that an emergency landing is a landing at any location other than the destination aerodrome.
17th Oct 2005, 21:30
Generally in th UK, well, at the places I've worked at least, there are 3 classes of 'Emergency' landing, where some sort of problem has been declared beforehand.
1. Local Standby. Where there is some slightly heightened risk that the aircraft may be in difficulties on landing. Positions the Airport Fire Service closer to the runway for more rapid response, but doesn't call in additional outside resources. The local Emergency Services will be informed, but won't be expected to attend.
2. Full Emergency. The arriving aircraft is expected to have difficulties upon landing. Airport Fire Service positioned adjacent to the runway. in addition, one or more appliances will follow the aircraft down the runway. The external Emergency Services, Fire, Ambulance and Police will be alerted and will send pre-determined number of units to a nominated Rendezvous Point, which will be declared by ATC in the initial call. The RVP will change depending on the anticipated outcome of the emergency.
3. Aircraft Accident Imminent. This is where there are obvious signs that the aircraft will crash or there is a high chance of fire on landing. The airfield response is the same as Full Emergency, but there will be heightened response from the external Emergency Services. The RVP might well be different, to take into account the extra space needed for the appliances etc
Once on the ground, there can be a number of outcomes.
1. The passengers and crew are either evacuating or need rescuing from the aircraft. In this case, any of the above will be upgraded to 'Aircraft Accident'.
2. No evacuation or rescue is required immediately but there is still a risk of fire/fumes etc. In this case, the Emergency will be changed to Aircraft Ground Incident, or AGI.
3. The aircraft is able to continue unassisted. It is usual to retain the state as 'Local Standby' and the aircraft is escorted to stand/parking spot by a number of Airport Fire appliances, as a precaution. I've seen an aircraft that declared itself fit & well, followed to stand by the Fire Service, burst into flames halfway there (727 with APU problems. Most spectacular. The released hydraulic fluid stripped most of the paint from the aft part of the fueslage)
Of course all the above assumes the flight crew have given an open description to ATC of their plight. Don't be shy or embarrassed about making a declaration of difficulty. We don't mind having the practice! Some airlines complain about suddenly having their aircraft surrounded by red lorries, as if it's going to put their passengers off! What nonsense!
Any public aerodrome is required to have an Aerodrome Manual, for all to read. The way in which the above operates will be written up in that document in some detail, so go and ask to see it. I'm sure it's basically the same in any ICAO contracting state.
Now, medical emergencies are a different kettle of fish and aren't (or weren't) necessarily a part of the Emergency Orders. Basically, even if someone is seriously ill on board, if the aircraft can land and taxy to the gate, there's no need for Emergency Service interference, just a medical team to meet the a/c once it's parked. However, following a few rapid decompressions where pax were hurt (blood coming out of their ears etc) although there's nothing wrong with the a/c while it's landing and taxying, we do ask for an enhanced response from the Ambulance Service/Paramedics. Again, there's always exceptions - Crew Incapacitation normally gets a Local Standby stuck on, just in case.