View Full Version : TAKEOFF Distance & Gadient Requirements


yawskidball
12th Jul 2004, 01:12
:hmm: Could you be so kind as to explain any relationship between:{ the 4 segment takeoff specification climb gradient requirements :*the supplementary takeoff distances climb gradient requirements :\ and the aircraft TOW adjustment to comply with both of the above:confused:



john_tullamarine
12th Jul 2004, 07:44
(a) Climb Gradients.

For each design standard (eg FAR 25), there are minimum airworthiness gradients in different configurations. These are usually referred to a WAT-limits (as the main parameters affecting them are aircraft Weight, Altitude, and outside air Temperature). These limits serve to provide some minimum likelihood that the aircraft will, in fact, be able to climb at a modest rate.

The four segment WAT limits (sometimes five) apply to heavy turbine designs - jet and turboprop.

If the actual weight is less than the WAT-limited weight, then the aircraft's climb capability will improve. This information is available in the flight manual takeoff chart section.

(b) Obstacle Clearance.

For determining optimum payload (meaning maximum payload) one matches the aircraft climb capability against the actual runway, after takeoff obstacles etc.

(c) STODA

Supplementary TakeOff Distance Available - otherwise known as effective operational length in some quarters.

The TODA (takeoff distance available) is measured from the end of the runway (clearway if declared) and has no regard to obstacles - as a result the gradient from end TODA to the critical obstacle (ie that which gives the highest gradient) can be sufficiently high as to render the TODA not much use to the heavy operator.

If the optimised process (b) is not practicable for some reason, the operator may look at the declared STODA values (reduced length TODA values which result in a specific gradient which clears all obstacles within the declared trapezoid). Provided the available gradient from the flight manual is not less than the STODA, then the weight is fine. This is complicated somewhat when we consider the level third segment but that is only a complication which can be addressed in various ways.

(d) Aircraft Weight

Weight -

more = decreased climb gradient
less = increased climb gradient

The relationship is a matter of iterative analysis to find the maximum weight which meets both WAT and obstacle clearance requirements